Stem Cells Dev 24:610 (2015)
Li J1, Ma Y, Teng R, Guan Q, Lang J, Fang J, Long H, Tian G, Wu Q.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show great promise in blood vessel restoration and vascularization enhancement in many therapeutic situations. Typically, the co-implantation of MSCs with vascular endothelial cells (ECs) is effective for the induction of functional vascularization in vivo, indicating its potential applications in regenerative medicine. The effects of MSCs-ECs-induced vascularization can be modeled in vitro, providing simplified models for understanding their underlying communication. In this article, a contact coculture model in vitro and an RNA-seq approach were employed to reveal the active crosstalk between MSCs and ECs within a short time period at both morphological and transcriptional levels. The RNA-seq results suggested that angiogenic genes were significantly induced upon coculture, and this prevascularization commitment might require the NF-κB signaling. NF-κB blocking and interleukin (IL) neutralization experiments demonstrated that MSCs potentially secreted IL factors including IL1β and IL6 to modulate NF-κB signaling and downstream chemokines during coculture. Conversely, RNA-seq results indicated that the MSCs were regulated by the coculture environment to a smooth muscle commitment within this short period, which largely induced myocardin, the myogenic co-transcriptional factor. These findings demonstrate the mutual molecular mechanism of MSCs-ECs-induced prevascularization commitment in a quick response.