Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuroinflammation and mortality
All the mice used in this experiment were purchased from the Laboratory Animal Center of the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU). All animal experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the FMMU.It has been shown that MSCs can relieve inflammation-induced tissue damage during the infection of viruses and bacteria through immunomodulation [32–34]. To assess the effect on the progression of JE, MSCs were transplanted at 1 and 3 dpi. In general, JEV-infected mice without MSC treatment showed clinical signs of encephalitis starting with piloerection and physical limitation followed by paresis and rigidity, and eventually progressing to severe neurological signs such as paralysis, seizure, and even death. In contrast, the MSC treatment group had a more rapid recovery in terms of weight and behavior than the JEV group (Fig. 1a and b). The survival rate was significantly improved in the MSC treatment group (77.78% survival) compared with the JEV group (36.84% survival) (Fig. 1c). These data suggested that MSC treatment alleviated the suffering and improved the prognosis in JEV-infected mice.We would like to thank Dr. Hong Fan (Department of Neurobiology and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, School of Basic Medicine, the Fourth Military Medical University), Professor Boquan Jin (Department of Immunology, the Fourth Military Medical University), and Dr. Bei Li (State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Disease, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, the Fourth Military Medical University) for their generous suggestions regarding our study. We appreciate the technical assistance of Dr. Yong Zhao (Laboratory Animal Center, the Fourth Military Medical University).