J Hepatol 64:342 (2016)
Lu C1, Xia J2, Zhou Y3, Lu X2, Zhang L3, Gou M4, Li L5, Zhang X5, Ji H3, Zhu K3, Li L2, Zhang J2, Yu P6, Yang J5, Bu H7, Shi Y8.
BACKGROUND & AIMS:
The stimulatory G protein α subunit (Gsα) activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cAMP and participates in diverse cell processes. Aberrant expression of Gsα results in various pathophysiological disorders, including tumorigenesis, but little is known about its role in liver regeneration.
We generated a hepatocyte-specific Gsα gene knockout mouse to demonstrate the essential role of Gsα in liver regeneration using a mouse model with 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) or an intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
Gsα inactivation dramatically impaired liver regeneration and blocked proliferating hepatocytes in G1/S transition due to the simultaneous depression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and cyclin E1. Loss of Gsα led to a fundamental alteration in gene profiles. Among the altered signaling cascades, the MAPK/Erk pathway, which is downstream of growth factor signaling, was disrupted secondary to a defect in phosphorylated Raf1 (pRaf1), resulting in a deficiency in phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) and CDK2 ablation. The lack of pRaf1 also resulted in a failure to phosphorylate retinoblastoma, which releases and activates E2F1, and a decrease in cyclin E1. Although these factors could be phosphorylated through both Gsα and growth factor signaling, the unique function of Raf1 in the growth factor cascade collapsed in response to the lack of Gsα.
The growth factor signaling pathway that promotes hepatocyte proliferation is dependent on Gsα signaling. Loss of Gsα leads to a breakdown of the crosstalk between cAMP and growth factor signaling and dramatically impairs liver regeneration.
Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.