BAC Transgenic Mice

With decades of use across numerous fields of human disease studies, BAC transgenic mice remain an invaluable tool for preclinical research of gene functions and human diseases. BAC transgenes are generated by nonspecific integration into the target genome; therefore a variable number of copies can be inserted into an unknown locus in the genome of the target organism. BACs are ideal vectors for introduction of large genomic fragments (up to 300 kb) into the mouse or rat genome. BAC transgenic services are well established and can be more cost effective than CRISPR or ES cell based strategies.

We offer a one-stop solution for all your BAC transgenic mouse model needs: contact us to perform your entire transgenic project from initial strategy design and BAC modification (BAC recombineering) services to establishment and analysis of transgenic founder animals. Our turnaround time is the shortest in the industry, our prices are unbeatable, and for eligible services, we can guarantee the generation of animals or your money back.

What is BAC?

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. During the Human Genome Project, researchers had to find a way to reduce the entire human genome into chunks, as it was too large to be sequenced in one go. To do this, they created a store of DNA fragments called a BAC library. Unlike standard plasmids that may replicate to hundreds of copies per cell, BACs are maintained as a single copy within each bacterial cell.

BAC Transgenic Mouse Models and Genetic Disease Research

BACs can hold large genomic fragments from humans or other species, which has driven their use in generating transgenic mice and rats for a variety of purposes. BACs are ideal vectors for introduction of entire genes into the mouse or rat genome. Given that the BAC is randomly integrated in the genome as a transgene rather than disrupting the endogenous gene, BAC transgenic animals can demonstrate a similar expression pattern of the gene of interest compared with knock-in models. BAC transgenes are often able to accurately replicate the expression patterns of endogenous genes because of their substantial size and inclusion of distant regulatory elements. Clones are highly stable in their host even after 100 generations. BACs thus facilitate the construction of DNA libraries of complex genomes because they allow fuller representation of all sequences. As such, numerous BAC libraries have been assembled and sequenced to allow for quick recognition of BAC clones carrying a desired gene.

Advantages and Disadvantages of BAC Transgenesis

Unlike conventional plasmids that may replicate to hundreds of copies per cell, BACs are self-maintained as a single copy within each bacterial cell. BACs are the most evolved herpesvirus infectious clone technology, and come with several advantages, but there are still some drawbacks to the technology. The advantages and disadvantages of BAC transgenesis are outlined below.

Advantages of BAC Transgenesis:

  • Maintains up to 300 kb of DNA, enabling introduction of large genomic fragments;
  • Clones are highly stable in their host even after 100 generations (due to BAC plasmids being constructed with the replication origin of E. coli F factor);
  • Facilitate the construction of DNA libraries of complex genomes because they allow fuller representation of all sequences.

Disadvantages of BAC Transgenesis:

  • The inserted BAC can disrupt the expression of neighboring genes;
  • Viral progeny might be attenuated in vivo;
  • Most importantly, full-length herpesvirus BACs usually do not produce wild type (wt) progeny because of the insertion of the BAC in their genome (limiting most of the single-unit herpesvirus BACs to applications not requiring wt viruses).

Pricing and Turnaround Time

Service Donor egg strain Price Turnaround time
Transgenic strategy design   Free 1-4 days
BAC modification (recombineering)   Please inquire 2-5 weeks
Prepare DNA for injection and develop genotyping strategy   Please inquire 1-2 weeks
BAC injection to obtain founders, basic service* C57BL/6 Please inquire 8-14 weeks
BAC injection to obtain founders, guaranteed service* C57BL/6 Please inquire 8-18 weeks
Genotyping pups to identify founders   Please inquire 1 week

* If you need your BAC modified, click here to find out about BAC modification (BAC recombineering) services.
Note: Turnaround time above does not include the time for obtaining host institution’s approval for mouse importation, nor transit time during shipping.

Donor Strain Information

We typically produce transgenic mice in C57BL/6 strain backgrounds, but we can use other strains per your request.  

>> Rat models are also available. Learn more about Regular Transgenic Rat Services.



Cyagen offers the best guarantee in the industry – we will fully refund the client’s service fee if animals with the specified genotype are not generated (except for genetic modifications severely affecting viability, morbidity, or fertility). Given the complexity of biological systems, a particular genetic modification may not result in the desired phenotype. As such, Cyagen's guarantee covers the creation of animals with the specified genotype, not a particular phenotypic outcome in terms of transcription, protein/RNA function, or organismal biology.


Order Supporting Information 

Please see below for supporting information related to Cyagen animal orders.


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